Lactose intolerance is the inability of an individual to digest the lactose sugar present in milk or any dairy product. Lactose intolerance can occur at different ages. Mostly, Infants are affected but lactose intolerance can affect children as young as 2 years and is very common in adults. One way to treat lactose intolerance is to take Lactose-reduced diet, Prebiotics, Probiotics and Enzyme replacement. However, this can result in lack of important nutrients and vitamins such as Calcium, Vitamin D and Riboflavin which are basic requirement of an individual. Some people use lactose-free milk or milk substitutes such as soy or rice milk but it is not perfect as milk.
Naturally the enzyme is produced in the inner wall of small intestine. Microvilli which are small finger like projections and are present in the inner walls of small intestine produces Lactase. This absorbs nutrients from food containing Lactose and then the food can be absorbed directly into the blood stream. These microvilli are also known as Brush border based on their appearance. Lactase which is present on these brush border helps in breakdown of Lactose into smaller sugars i.e. Glucose and Galactose for further absorption.